Using Results


What do the Results Look Like?

The results of a 25 marker Y chromosome DNA analysis will consist of a series of 25 numbers in the form :-




















up to 25.  The locus is the position on the Y chromosome that is being measured. The DYS# is the technical identification for that position and the Alleles value is the parameter being measured for your particular Y chromosome. Every man having his DNA tested will have a series of similar figures, 12, 25 or 37 of them, depending on the resolution of the Y chromosome analysis carried out. The Creer DNA study uses  25 marker tests. This set of 25 numbers is your own personal DNA profile or haplotype.

When the results are available from Family Tree DNA they will send you an email containing a link to a page on their website (of the form where XXXX is your kit number and YYYY is your password). This page will show your results in the form given above and is effectively your own results homepage. More explanation of what these pages means is given below.

 What do my matches or near matches mean?

At the same time as you receive your results, you may also get an email from FTDNA advising you that you match exactly or closely with one or more other men on their own database. You may be able to see these matches on your personal page in the section  "Y-DNA Matches" or you can upload your own results to a number of public online databases and make comparisons there. One example is Ysearch and there is a link on your page to connect with Ysearch and automatically copy your results there to compare with others. This is easy to do. (Please contact John Creer is you want details of any others of the public online Y chromosome databases)  

However, at the current stage of knowledge of Y chromosome analysis, it is important to be cautious and not to read too much too quickly into exact or close matches between your haplotype and others on the FTDNA or public databases.

 Exact or close matches at the 12 marker resolution between men who have different surnames may infer that a genetic connection exists sometime in the past but it is likely to be in the 10's of thousands of years ago. Exact or close matches at the 25 marker resolution level similarly may indicate that there was once a common ancestor perhaps 1,000-10,000 years ago.

 The only significant findings are likely to be those where there is an exact or close match between men who hold the same surname (or a possibly connected surname). Once your results have been received, John Creer the Study Coordinator will make a preliminary assessment of what your individual result means and email you. He will also try and answer any questions you have.  

However as more and more results come in from other participants in the Creer DNA study, then it is hoped that some sort of pattern of results will emerge, which will lead to more interpretation and analysis, leading to preliminary conclusions about the genetic connection between different Creer families. This of course will be shared with participants at every stage. This process ultimately may take some time to complete however for several reasons:-

More participants may need to be recruited in order to increase the probability of the conclusions being accurate.
Some identified existing Creer family groups may not be represented at all or enough in the study, and further recruitment may be required.
Some results may not be explainable and further recruitment of new candidates or additional testing of existing results may be necessary.

 Recent Ethnic Origins

On  your FTDNA  personal page there is a section entitled "Recent Ethnic Origins". This is a service provided by FTDNA which compares your haplotype with all the others held in their internal database, identifies where there is an exact of close match at both 12 and 25 marker resolution and displays the stated ethnic origins of the men who match with your haplotype in this way. Again, at this stage, these comparison should be treated with some caution as only matches at the 25 marker level with men of the same surname hold any real meaning. However it does show the ethnic diversity of men with comparable haplotypes. It should also be noted that the ethnic origin here is that known or remembered by those taking part, and hence is only subjective and recent.  


Anthropologists have tracked the movement of early populations across the earth over the last 100,000 years or so through DNA analysis. As they moved, some of these groups branched off into different continents and their DNA patterns evolved separately. These different evolutions have been mapped and tracked, and the DNA picture classified in terms of haplogroups or clades i.e. the DNA picture typical of a particular early population at a macro level. 

Some of the men in the FTDNA database have had their haplogroup values measured as well, and as part of their service FTDNA compare your haplotype against these others in order to predict what your haplogroup value will be. This is shown on the page named "Haplogroup" at your personal page. It is possible to have this value confirmed by an additional test, but the prediction seems to be pretty accurate when looking at the comparative data. I believe that we Creers will all belong to haplogroup R1b which is typically european. More information is available on your personal page.

Copyright  John A Creer -  Webpage last updated on 12/04/2006